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Beginning in the mid - s, the Nazis started economically exploiting the prisoners in the camps. The SS 40 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide authorities hired out its human resource - the labor of the camp inmates - to various German companies in order to make a profit.

German control of large parts of Europe presented a wide range of possibilities for continued economic exploitation of what they considered racially inferior populations.

Consequently, hundreds of camps were established for forced labor. The harsh working conditions caused the deaths of a substantial number of prisoners.

The SS authorities even developed the concept of "extermination through labor," which was implemented with regard to some of the prisoners, especially the Jews.

Conditions were brutal even by concentration camp standards. Nearly , prisoners of various nationalities were either worked or tortured to death at the camp before liberating American troops arrived in May Majdanek was liberated by the Red Army in July Memoir is autobiographical writing, but not all autobiographical writing follows the criteria for memoir.

In the Third Reich the term was used to denote people who were of partial Aryan ancestry. Jews were defined by Nazis as people with at least three full Jewish grandparents.

A Mischling of the first degree, or half-Jew, was a person with two Jewish grandparents who did not belong to the Jewish religion or who was not married to a Jew as of September 15, A Mischling of the second degree, or quarter-Jew, was someone with one Jewish grandparent or an Aryan married to a Jew.

The Mischlinge issue was very important to Adolf Hitler. The policy in Germany was to assimilate second degree Mischlinge into the Aryan nation, while first degree Mischlinge were to be considered like Jews.

In other countries, policies differed. Over the winter of , some Nazis proposed that all Mischlinge of the first degree be sterilized; however, nothing ever came of this because the Nazis feared the reactions of the many Germans related to the Mischlinge.

The party was taken over by Adolf Hitler in the early s. The swastika was the party symbol. Germans were said to be the natural rulers of the world and, in order to achieve that position, influence of the Jews needed to be ended.

Non-alignment is the implementation of neutralism by avoiding military alliances. A sovereign state that reserves the right to become a belligerent if attacked by a party to the war is in a condition of armed neutrality.

Neutralism or a "neutralist policy" is a foreign policy position wherein a state intends to remain neutral in future wars.

During World War II, these countries took no official side during the war in their hopes to avoid being attacked by the Axis Powers or in becoming involved in the aerial attacks of the Axis and Allied Powers.

The first, the Reich Citizenship Law, deprived German Jews of their citizenship and all rights pertinent thereto.

The second, the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, outlawed marriages of Jews and non-Jews, forbade Jews from employing German females of childbearing age, and prohibited Jews from displaying the German flag.

Many additional regulations were attached to the two main statutes, which provided the basis for removing Jews from all spheres of German political, social, and economic life.

The Nuremberg Laws carefully established definitions of Jewishness based on bloodlines. The celebration is organized into a feast called the Passover Seder.

In most cases, these opinions are founded on suspicions, ignorance and the irrational fear of or hatred of other races, religions or nationalities.

The group took its name from the "quaking" that is sometimes associated with the agitation of religious feeling.

Because of the involvement of the AFSC in relief services throughout Europe before World War II, the Nazis treated the Quakers with respect and permitted them to continue welfare activities in southern France during the occupation.

Even seemingly positive stereotypes that link a person or group to a specific positive trait can have negative consequences.

Sobibor opened in May and closed one day after a rebellion of the Jewish prisoners on October 14, Originally organized as Hitler's personal bodyguard, the SS was transformed into a giant organization by Heinrich Himmler.

Although various SS units were assigned to the battlefield, the organization is best known for carrying out the destruction of European Jewry.

Louis was a refugee ship that left Hamburg in the spring of , bound for Cuba. Cuba refused entry to most of its Jewish passengers. No country, including the United States, was willing to accept them.

The ship finally returned to Europe where most of the refugees were finally granted entry into England, Holland, France and Belgium. Many of its passengers died in Nazi concentration camps after occupation of Holland, France and Belgium.

Jews in Nazi-occupied lands often were first deported to transit camps such as Westerbork in the Netherlands, or Drancy in France, en route to the killing centers in occupied Poland.

The transit camps were usually the last stop before deportation to an extermination camp. By November , approximately , Jews, many from Warsaw, were murdered in Treblinka.

They tolerated a lively cultural life of theater, music, lectures, and art in order to have it shown to officials of the International Red Cross.

It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka. At this conference, the apparatus was coordinated to carry out the total annihilation of European Jews.

Almost 45, Jews died there in alone, due to overcrowding, forced labor, lack of sanitation, starvation, and disease. The uprising, led by Mordecai Anielewicz, was the first instance in occupied Europe of an uprising by an urban population.

The transit camp operated from to with the assistance of the Dutch military police and the SS. Deportation trains left the camp every Tuesday from July of to September of , deporting a total of 97, Jews.

More than half of those deported from Westerbork went to Auschwitz where they were most likely killed upon arrival. It developed as a fusion of Hebrew and Aramaic into German dialects with the infusion of Slavic and traces of Romance languages.

It is written in the Hebrew alphabet. Margot Frank is her older sister. Amsterdam, the country's largest city, has a Jewish population of about 75, and increases to over 79, in Jews represented less than 10 percent of the city's total population.

More than 10, of these were foreign Jews who had found refuge in Amsterdam in the s. September 15 Otto Frank sets up his Opekta business in Amsterdam and becomes director.

November December Edith moves to the Netherlands. Margot moves to the Netherlands. Anne enrolls in a Montessori school in Amsterdam. Otto Frank starts a second company, Pectacon, in partnership with Hermann van Pels, a Jewish butcher, who has also fled from Germany with his family.

May 14 The Netherlands surrenders to Germany. The Germans establish a civilian administration dominated by the SS. While Anne inherited her father's ambivalence towards the Torah, Margot followed her mother's example and became involved in Amsterdam's Jewish community.

She took Hebrew classes, attended synagogue, and in joined a Dutch Zionist club for young people who wanted to immigrate to Land of Israel to found a Jewish state, where, according to Anne, she wished to become a midwife.

August December The family visits the beach at Zandvoort in the Netherlands. Opekta and Pectacon move to a new address in Amsterdam: Prinsengracht Almost all of them were murdered in Mauthausen.

December Jews are forbidden to own their own businesses, so Otto appoints Mr. Kleiman and Mr. Kugler as directors, but remains in charge behind the scenes.

Within Amsterdam, Jews are restricted to certain sections of the city. Foreign and stateless Jews are sent directly to the Westerbork transit camp.

June 12 Anne receives an autograph book for her birthday that she had pointed out to Otto in a shop window. She decides to use it as a diary.

July The Germans begin mass deportations of Jews to extermination camps in occupied Poland, primarily to Auschwitz but also to Sobibor. The city administration, the Dutch municipal police, and Dutch railway workers all cooperate in the deportations, as do the Dutch Nazi party NSB.

German and Dutch Nazi authorities arrest Jews in the streets of Amsterdam and take them to the assembly point for deportations - the municipal theater building, the Hollandsche Schouwburg.

When several hundred people are assembled in the building and in the back courtyard, they are transferred to Westerbork.

July 6 The Frank family goes into hiding in the secret annex hidden at Prinsengracht July 13 Hermann van Pels, his wife, Auguste, and his son, Peter, go into hiding in the secret annex.

Hermann is the son of a Dutch father and a German mother. When he married Auguste in she became a Dutch citizen because according to law women automatically took on the nationality of their husbands.

On November 8, , their son Peter was born. On June 26, , they moved to the Netherlands. Hermann began working with Otto Frank in Miep described Auguste as stylish and coquettish.

The Van Pels family provides ample excitement, which can sometimes be fun but there are also a lot of major arguments.

Van Pels becomes the cook of the house. She likes discussing politics, and invariably gets into arguments with her husband.

October The Germans send hundreds of Jews and their families in Amsterdam to Westerbork transit camp. All are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau within a few weeks.

November 6 Fritz Pfeffer goes into hiding in the secret annex. Pfeffer was born on April 30, , in Giessen, Germany. His parents were Jewish and had a clothing store in the center of the city.

After high school Fritz studied to be a dentist in Berlin, where he started a dental practice after his study. In he married Vera Bythiner.

Their son Werner was born on April 3, The marriage ended in divorce in Pfeffer received custody of his son. Following his divorce, Pfeffer met Charlotte Kaletta, a Catholic.

The Nuremberg Laws of , outlawing marriages between Jews and nonJews, made it impossible for them to marry. After "Kristallnacht," the night of broken glass, Pfeffer and Charlotte Kaletta decided to immigrate to the Netherlands.

Only people comply. The Germans respond by sealing the Jewish quarter and rounding up Jews. All are deported to Westerbork transit camp and from there, most of them to the Sobibor extermination camp.

December 5 The Germans confiscate the property left behind by deported Jews. In alone the contents of nearly 10, apartments in Amsterdam were expropriated by the Germans and shipped to Germany.

Some 25, Jews, including at least 4, children, went into hiding to evade deportation. About one-third of those in hiding were discovered, arrested, and deported.

In all, at least 80 percent of the prewar Dutch Jewish community perished. Anne writes a traditional Saint Nicholas Day poem.

In the poem, she describes a very different, active Peter, than the boy she had described upon first impression as lazy and hypersensitive. Now she tells of how he chops wood, carries up vegetables and potatoes from downstairs, cleans the attic, takes care of the cats and even washes his own overalls.

Poor boy! September 3 The people in hiding are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp in occupied Poland.

September 6 Arrival at Auschwitz. Bloeme saw Anne, Margot, and their mother regularly in Auschwitz.

All the inhabitants of the secret annex survive selection. Otto is separated forever from his wife and daughters. Eyewitness reports claim Edith and her two daughters remain close in the camp.

Anne had turned 15 three months earlier and was one of the youngest people to be spared from the 53 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide transport.

She was soon made aware that most people were gassed upon arrival, and never learned that the entire group from the secret annex had survived this selection.

She reasoned that her father, in his mid-fifties and not particularly robust, had been killed immediately after they were separated.

According to eyewitness? He later injured his thumb on work detail and requested to be sent to the sick barracks. Soon after that, during a sweep of the sick barracks for selection, he was sent to the gas chambers.

This occurred about three weeks after his arrival at Auschwitz. His selection was witnessed by both his son Peter and Otto Frank.

The Frank sisters are moved into an infirmary, which is in a state of constant darkness and infested with rats and mice. Edith Frank stops eating, saving every morsel of food for her daughters and passing her rations to them through a hole she made at the bottom of the infirmary wall.

The Frank women are slated to join a transport to the Liebau labor camp in Upper Silesia. Bloeme Evers-Emden is slated to be on this transport.

But Anne is prohibited from going because she has developed scabies, and her mother and sister opt to stay with her. Bloeme goes on without them.

October 30 The last selection takes place at Auschwitz. Edith is selected for the gas chamber while Anne and Margot are selected for deportation to BergenBelsen concentration camp in Germany.

Edith escapes with a friend to another section of the camp, where she remains through the winter. Fritz Pfeffer is deported to Neuengamme concentration camp in Germany.

November 26 Mrs. December 20 Fritz Pfeffer dies in Neuengamme. Evacuation of Auschwitz begins. Those too weak or sick to walk are left behind.

These remaining 7, are ordered for execution by the SS, but in the chaos of the Nazi retreat the order was never carried out. Otto refuses, not knowing that this resignation to die actually ends up saving his life.

Peter joins the death march out of Auschwitz. January 25 Peter is registered at Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria. Anne and Margot arrive on a transport from Auschwitz that left in late October, Anne is briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar and Nanette Blitz, who were confined in another section of the camp.

Goslar and Blitz both survive the war and later discuss the brief conversations they conducted with Anne through a fence.

Blitz describes her as bald, emaciated, and shivering. Neither of them sees Margot, as she was too weak to leave her bunk. Anne tells both Blitz and Goslar she believes her parents are dead, and for that reason she does not wish to live any longer.

Goslar later estimates their meetings took place in late January or early February January 27 Auschwitz is liberated by Soviet troops.

Otto is still in the sick barracks. He is taken first to Odessa and then to France before he is allowed to make his way back to Amsterdam.

January 29 Peter is placed in an outdoor labor group. February 4 Mrs. March A typhus epidemic spreads throughout Bergen-Belsen, killing 17, prisoners.

Witnesses later testify that Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and is killed by the shock. A few days later, Anne dies. Anne and Margot are buried in a mass grave; the exact whereabouts remain unknown.

April 9 Mrs. It is believed she died en route or shortly upon arrival. April 11 Peter is sent to the sick barracks at Mauthausen.

April 15 Bergen-Belsen is liberated by British troops; the exact dates were not recorded. After liberation, the camp is burned in an effort to prevent further spread of disease.

May 2 Peter dies at Mauthausen. His exact death date is unknown but the International Red Cross designated it as 2 May He was 18 years old.

Mauthausen is liberated three days later on 5 May by men from the 11th Armored Division of the U. Third Army. June 3 Otto Frank, the sole survivor from the secret annex, returns to Amsterdam.

He is reunited with Miep and Jan Gies, who had continued to run his business. Despite being sent to camps after their arrest, Jo Kleiman and Victor Kugler, who also assisted in hiding the Frank family, have also survived.

They return to work and wait for news of the people in hiding. At first Otto stays with Miep and her husband, Jan. Otto knows his wife has died, but he does not know that his daughters have died too.

October 24 Otto Frank receives a letter informing him that his daughters died at Bergen-Belsen. Miep gives Anne's diaries and papers to Otto.

She found and hid the diary after the Franks' arrest and had been hoping to return it to Anne. He is persuaded that Anne's writing shed light into the experiences of many of those who suffered persecution under Nazis and is urged to consider publishing it.

He types out the diary papers into a single manuscript and edits out sections he thinks too personal to his family or too mundane to be of interest to the general reader.

This attracts the interest of Amsterdam's Contact Publishing. Summer June 25 Amsterdam's Contact Publishing accepts the manuscript for publication.

The first Dutch edition of the diary is issued under the title Het Achterhuis meaning literally: "the back house. The Diary of Anne Frank is published in Germany in an edition of 4, copies.

A very successful paperback edition follows in I thought they should read it. The success of Het Achterhuis leads to an English translation. From the start, the book is a huge success and is repeatedly reprinted.

Within no time, millions of Americans read it. Its adaptation for the theatre and the big screen adds to its popularity. Once published and after receiving several good reviews it still fails to attract an audience and is out of print by Elfriede Markovits was born in Vienna, Austria, on February 13, She married Erich Geiringer and the couple had two children: a son, Heinz, born in , and a daughter, Eva, born on May 11, The family fled first to Belgium and then to the Netherlands in , where they settled down as neighbors to the Frank family.

Eva and Anne knew each through mutual friends. When the Germans invaded Holland and Heinz received a call-up to a work-camp, the family went into hiding.

They successfully hid for two years and might have survived the war if they had not been betrayed in May They were then captured by the Nazis and sent to AuschwitzBirkenau concentration camp.

They were liberated in January by the Russians, but Erich and Heinz Geiringer had perished in the forced march to Mauthausen that came just before the war ended.

Elfriede and her daughter, Eva, returned to Amsterdam on June 13, Otto Frank visited them at their apartment not long after.

Susan Strasberg, who plays Anne, was nominated for Best Actress. With the aid of public donations, the building and its adjacent neighbor is purchased by the Foundation.

It includes comparisons from all known versions, both edited and unedited. It includes discussion asserting the diary's authentication, as well as additional historical information relating to the family and the diary itself.

October 2 After living long enough to see the birth of five of her great grandchildren, Elfriede Frank dies peacefully in her sleep.

The missing diary entries contain critical remarks by Anne Frank about her parents' strained marriage and discuss Anne's lack of affection for her mother.

Some controversy ensues when Suijk claims publishing rights over the five pages; he intends to sell them to raise money for his foundation. The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation, the formal owner of the manuscript, demands the pages be handed over.

Since then, they have been included in new editions of the diary. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, The Nazis used triangular badges or patches to identify prisoners in the concentration camps.

Different colored patches represented different groups. Most commonly, the letter indicated nationality, e. In addition, the word Blod on a black triangle marked mentally retarded inmates, and a red and white target symbol set apart those who had tried to escape.

In addition, while the brown triangle was used for gypsies under certain circumstances, they were more often forced to wear the black triangle categorizing them as asocials.

Yellow Stars Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Main Security Office, first recommended that Jews be compelled to wear identifying badges following the Kristallnacht pogrom of November 9 and 10, Shortly after the invasion of Poland in September , local German authorities began introducing mandatory wearing of badges.

By the end of , all Jews in the newly-acquired Polish territories were required to wear badges. Upon invading the Soviet Union in June , the Germans again applied this requirement to newly-conquered lands.

Throughout the rest of and , Germany, its satellite states and western occupied territories adopted regulations stipulating that Jews wear identifying badges.

It allowed for the easier facilitation of ghettoization, ultimately leading to the deportation and murder of 6 million people. Those who failed or refused to wear the badge risked severe punishment, including death.

Though untrue, the story reflects the king's opposition to persecuting Denmark's Jewish citizens and residents and the popular perception of Denmark as a country which protected the Jews.

From her very first entry, dated just two days later, Anne chronicles the next two years of her life. Anne is a young, popular and precocious girl living in Amsterdam with her family.

Anne and her sister, Margot, attend school and live normal and happy lives until the Nazis invade the Netherlands. The diary of Anne Frank gives the Holocaust a human face and inspiring voice.

The diary has become a universal symbol of resistance for despite it all Anne wrote about her belief that above all, people are truly good at heart.

In May of the Nazis followed with an invasion and many restrictions were placed on the Jewish population. Daily life was instantly affected: Jewish children had to attend different schools, curfews were put into place, Jews were forced to turn in their bikes and restricted from public places and public transportation, Jews were forced to wear yellow stars and register with the government.

A Judenrat was set up by the Germans but deportations began in the summer of Most of the Dutch population would not convert to Nazism but there were those who sympathized and even collaborated with the party.

Many non-Jews risked their lives to perform various acts of resistance against the Nazis and to help Jews in hiding or on-the-run. Starting in the summer of many resistance fighters were shot or executed.

Life in hiding is certainly a challenge for the Franks, van Pels, and Fritz Pfeffer but not all those in hiding during World War II had such luxuries as a bathroom, kitchen, beds, separate rooms, and a reliable source of food.

Service halted and an enormous shortage follows. As a result, people are without fuel and food and must resort to desperate measures.

Anything that can be burned is used for heat and anything that can be eaten, including tulip bulbs, becomes food.

Thousands of Dutch children are sent to the countryside where they have a better chance of being fed but 22, people still die of hunger. Then, in April of , British planes drop food throughout the Netherlands and a few weeks later the war ends.

Only a small number of diaries written by victims of the Nazis have survived but they prove to be valuable, moving, and inspiring testimonies.

These diaries can be broadly grouped into the following categories: 1 Refugee diaries: those written by children who escaped German-controlled territory and became refugees or partisans; 2 Diaries in Hiding: those written by children living in hiding; and 3 Diaries in imprisonment or occupation: those maintained by young people as ghetto residents, as persons living under other restrictions imposed by German authorities, or, more rarely, as concentration camp prisoners.

As a collection the diaries of the Holocaust represent many universal themes with which readers of any age can connect. The diaries present the moral and ethical dimensions of the Holocaust through the eyes of children and teenagers.

Additionally, the variety of such diaries expresses contrasting wartime circumstances. Provide students with a copy of the diary, and have them examine the picture of Anne on the cover.

Read the title of the book. Ask the students to read the first page of the diary aloud or to themselves.

Based on the information they have read so far, have students predict what they are going to be reading about. The teacher should read aloud, page two through diary entry of Saturday, 20 June, On a chart paper or on the white board, have students identify the uses or reasons that Anne is going to be keeping a diary on one side of the chart paper or board.

Students may have to research and pull evidence from different historical and secondary sources. Students can do this activity in groups or alone.

What type of information is usually included in a diary? How does a diary reflect the times in which it was written?

What events cause the Frank family to go into hiding? How are the Franks and the others hiding in the secret annex able to survive there for such a long period of time?

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For the above instance, it would look like Gypsies, Russian prisoners-of-war, ill prisoners. The Simon Wiesenthal Center FACISM A social and political ideology that has its primary guiding principle that the state or nation is the highest priority, rather than personal or individual freedoms.

The program was deceptively disguised as "resettlement in the East. Rationing controls the size of the ration, one's allotted portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time.

Every family was issued a set number of each kind of stamp based on the size of the family, ages of children and income. This allowed the Allies and mainly America to supply huge amounts of food to the troops and later provided a surplus to aid in the rebuilding of Europe with aid to Germany after food supplies were destroyed.

Nearly all food was rationed in Europe during World War II in both occupied zones and liberated areas.

In the summer of , the Germans commenced murdering Jews en masse in a systematic fashion. After several months, it became clear to them that the mass murder method they had previously employed, of shooting, was neither quick nor efficient enough to serve their needs.

Thus, based on the experience gained in the Euthanasia Program, they began using gas chambers to annihilate European Jewry.

The Nazis continued to search for a more efficient method of mass murder. After some experimentation on Soviet prisoners of war, the Nazis found a commercial insecticide called Zyklon B to be an appropriate gas for their needs.

All of these gas chambers utilized Zyklon B to kill their victims. Established mostly in Eastern Europe e. Lodz, Warsaw, Vilna, Riga, Minsk , and characterized by overcrowding, starvation and forced labor.

All ghettos were eventually destroyed when the Jews were deported to death camps. Gypsies first appeared in Western Europe in the 15th century.

By the 16th century, they had spread throughout Europe, where they were persecuted almost as relentlessly as the Jews.

The gypsies occupied a special place in Nazi racist theories. It is believed that approximately , perished during the Holocaust.

For the purposes of collecting statistics, Congress has defined a hate crime as a "criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, ethnic origin or sexual orientation.

Youth were subject to intensive propaganda regarding racial and national superiority. Later it was applied to the destruction of six million Jews by the Nazis and their followers in Europe between the years The Witnesses base their beliefs on the Bible and have no official ministers.

Recognizing only the kingdom of God, the Witnesses refuse to salute the flag, to bear arms in war, and to participate in the affairs of government.

This doctrine brought them into conflict with National Socialism. They were considered enemies of the state and were relentlessly persecuted.

It took the form of a yellow Star of David or an armband with a Star of David on it. Beginning in the mid - s, the Nazis started economically exploiting the prisoners in the camps.

The SS 40 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide authorities hired out its human resource - the labor of the camp inmates - to various German companies in order to make a profit.

German control of large parts of Europe presented a wide range of possibilities for continued economic exploitation of what they considered racially inferior populations.

Consequently, hundreds of camps were established for forced labor. The harsh working conditions caused the deaths of a substantial number of prisoners.

The SS authorities even developed the concept of "extermination through labor," which was implemented with regard to some of the prisoners, especially the Jews.

Conditions were brutal even by concentration camp standards. Nearly , prisoners of various nationalities were either worked or tortured to death at the camp before liberating American troops arrived in May Majdanek was liberated by the Red Army in July Memoir is autobiographical writing, but not all autobiographical writing follows the criteria for memoir.

In the Third Reich the term was used to denote people who were of partial Aryan ancestry. Jews were defined by Nazis as people with at least three full Jewish grandparents.

A Mischling of the first degree, or half-Jew, was a person with two Jewish grandparents who did not belong to the Jewish religion or who was not married to a Jew as of September 15, A Mischling of the second degree, or quarter-Jew, was someone with one Jewish grandparent or an Aryan married to a Jew.

The Mischlinge issue was very important to Adolf Hitler. The policy in Germany was to assimilate second degree Mischlinge into the Aryan nation, while first degree Mischlinge were to be considered like Jews.

In other countries, policies differed. Over the winter of , some Nazis proposed that all Mischlinge of the first degree be sterilized; however, nothing ever came of this because the Nazis feared the reactions of the many Germans related to the Mischlinge.

The party was taken over by Adolf Hitler in the early s. The swastika was the party symbol. Germans were said to be the natural rulers of the world and, in order to achieve that position, influence of the Jews needed to be ended.

Non-alignment is the implementation of neutralism by avoiding military alliances. A sovereign state that reserves the right to become a belligerent if attacked by a party to the war is in a condition of armed neutrality.

Neutralism or a "neutralist policy" is a foreign policy position wherein a state intends to remain neutral in future wars.

During World War II, these countries took no official side during the war in their hopes to avoid being attacked by the Axis Powers or in becoming involved in the aerial attacks of the Axis and Allied Powers.

The first, the Reich Citizenship Law, deprived German Jews of their citizenship and all rights pertinent thereto. The second, the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, outlawed marriages of Jews and non-Jews, forbade Jews from employing German females of childbearing age, and prohibited Jews from displaying the German flag.

Many additional regulations were attached to the two main statutes, which provided the basis for removing Jews from all spheres of German political, social, and economic life.

The Nuremberg Laws carefully established definitions of Jewishness based on bloodlines. The celebration is organized into a feast called the Passover Seder.

In most cases, these opinions are founded on suspicions, ignorance and the irrational fear of or hatred of other races, religions or nationalities.

The group took its name from the "quaking" that is sometimes associated with the agitation of religious feeling.

Because of the involvement of the AFSC in relief services throughout Europe before World War II, the Nazis treated the Quakers with respect and permitted them to continue welfare activities in southern France during the occupation.

Even seemingly positive stereotypes that link a person or group to a specific positive trait can have negative consequences. Sobibor opened in May and closed one day after a rebellion of the Jewish prisoners on October 14, Originally organized as Hitler's personal bodyguard, the SS was transformed into a giant organization by Heinrich Himmler.

Although various SS units were assigned to the battlefield, the organization is best known for carrying out the destruction of European Jewry.

Louis was a refugee ship that left Hamburg in the spring of , bound for Cuba. Cuba refused entry to most of its Jewish passengers.

No country, including the United States, was willing to accept them. The ship finally returned to Europe where most of the refugees were finally granted entry into England, Holland, France and Belgium.

Many of its passengers died in Nazi concentration camps after occupation of Holland, France and Belgium. Jews in Nazi-occupied lands often were first deported to transit camps such as Westerbork in the Netherlands, or Drancy in France, en route to the killing centers in occupied Poland.

The transit camps were usually the last stop before deportation to an extermination camp. By November , approximately , Jews, many from Warsaw, were murdered in Treblinka.

They tolerated a lively cultural life of theater, music, lectures, and art in order to have it shown to officials of the International Red Cross.

It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka. At this conference, the apparatus was coordinated to carry out the total annihilation of European Jews.

Almost 45, Jews died there in alone, due to overcrowding, forced labor, lack of sanitation, starvation, and disease.

The uprising, led by Mordecai Anielewicz, was the first instance in occupied Europe of an uprising by an urban population.

The transit camp operated from to with the assistance of the Dutch military police and the SS. Deportation trains left the camp every Tuesday from July of to September of , deporting a total of 97, Jews.

More than half of those deported from Westerbork went to Auschwitz where they were most likely killed upon arrival. It developed as a fusion of Hebrew and Aramaic into German dialects with the infusion of Slavic and traces of Romance languages.

It is written in the Hebrew alphabet. Margot Frank is her older sister. Amsterdam, the country's largest city, has a Jewish population of about 75, and increases to over 79, in Jews represented less than 10 percent of the city's total population.

More than 10, of these were foreign Jews who had found refuge in Amsterdam in the s. September 15 Otto Frank sets up his Opekta business in Amsterdam and becomes director.

November December Edith moves to the Netherlands. Margot moves to the Netherlands. Anne enrolls in a Montessori school in Amsterdam.

Otto Frank starts a second company, Pectacon, in partnership with Hermann van Pels, a Jewish butcher, who has also fled from Germany with his family.

May 14 The Netherlands surrenders to Germany. The Germans establish a civilian administration dominated by the SS. While Anne inherited her father's ambivalence towards the Torah, Margot followed her mother's example and became involved in Amsterdam's Jewish community.

She took Hebrew classes, attended synagogue, and in joined a Dutch Zionist club for young people who wanted to immigrate to Land of Israel to found a Jewish state, where, according to Anne, she wished to become a midwife.

August December The family visits the beach at Zandvoort in the Netherlands. Opekta and Pectacon move to a new address in Amsterdam: Prinsengracht Almost all of them were murdered in Mauthausen.

December Jews are forbidden to own their own businesses, so Otto appoints Mr. Kleiman and Mr. Kugler as directors, but remains in charge behind the scenes.

Within Amsterdam, Jews are restricted to certain sections of the city. Foreign and stateless Jews are sent directly to the Westerbork transit camp.

June 12 Anne receives an autograph book for her birthday that she had pointed out to Otto in a shop window. She decides to use it as a diary. July The Germans begin mass deportations of Jews to extermination camps in occupied Poland, primarily to Auschwitz but also to Sobibor.

The city administration, the Dutch municipal police, and Dutch railway workers all cooperate in the deportations, as do the Dutch Nazi party NSB.

German and Dutch Nazi authorities arrest Jews in the streets of Amsterdam and take them to the assembly point for deportations - the municipal theater building, the Hollandsche Schouwburg.

When several hundred people are assembled in the building and in the back courtyard, they are transferred to Westerbork. July 6 The Frank family goes into hiding in the secret annex hidden at Prinsengracht July 13 Hermann van Pels, his wife, Auguste, and his son, Peter, go into hiding in the secret annex.

Hermann is the son of a Dutch father and a German mother. When he married Auguste in she became a Dutch citizen because according to law women automatically took on the nationality of their husbands.

On November 8, , their son Peter was born. On June 26, , they moved to the Netherlands. Hermann began working with Otto Frank in Miep described Auguste as stylish and coquettish.

The Van Pels family provides ample excitement, which can sometimes be fun but there are also a lot of major arguments. Van Pels becomes the cook of the house.

She likes discussing politics, and invariably gets into arguments with her husband. October The Germans send hundreds of Jews and their families in Amsterdam to Westerbork transit camp.

All are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau within a few weeks. November 6 Fritz Pfeffer goes into hiding in the secret annex.

Pfeffer was born on April 30, , in Giessen, Germany. His parents were Jewish and had a clothing store in the center of the city.

After high school Fritz studied to be a dentist in Berlin, where he started a dental practice after his study. In he married Vera Bythiner. Their son Werner was born on April 3, The marriage ended in divorce in Pfeffer received custody of his son.

Following his divorce, Pfeffer met Charlotte Kaletta, a Catholic. The Nuremberg Laws of , outlawing marriages between Jews and nonJews, made it impossible for them to marry.

After "Kristallnacht," the night of broken glass, Pfeffer and Charlotte Kaletta decided to immigrate to the Netherlands. Only people comply. The Germans respond by sealing the Jewish quarter and rounding up Jews.

All are deported to Westerbork transit camp and from there, most of them to the Sobibor extermination camp.

December 5 The Germans confiscate the property left behind by deported Jews. In alone the contents of nearly 10, apartments in Amsterdam were expropriated by the Germans and shipped to Germany.

Some 25, Jews, including at least 4, children, went into hiding to evade deportation. About one-third of those in hiding were discovered, arrested, and deported.

In all, at least 80 percent of the prewar Dutch Jewish community perished. Anne writes a traditional Saint Nicholas Day poem.

In the poem, she describes a very different, active Peter, than the boy she had described upon first impression as lazy and hypersensitive.

Now she tells of how he chops wood, carries up vegetables and potatoes from downstairs, cleans the attic, takes care of the cats and even washes his own overalls.

Poor boy! September 3 The people in hiding are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp in occupied Poland.

September 6 Arrival at Auschwitz. Bloeme saw Anne, Margot, and their mother regularly in Auschwitz. All the inhabitants of the secret annex survive selection.

Otto is separated forever from his wife and daughters. Eyewitness reports claim Edith and her two daughters remain close in the camp. Anne had turned 15 three months earlier and was one of the youngest people to be spared from the 53 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide transport.

She was soon made aware that most people were gassed upon arrival, and never learned that the entire group from the secret annex had survived this selection.

She reasoned that her father, in his mid-fifties and not particularly robust, had been killed immediately after they were separated.

According to eyewitness? He later injured his thumb on work detail and requested to be sent to the sick barracks. Soon after that, during a sweep of the sick barracks for selection, he was sent to the gas chambers.

This occurred about three weeks after his arrival at Auschwitz. His selection was witnessed by both his son Peter and Otto Frank.

The Frank sisters are moved into an infirmary, which is in a state of constant darkness and infested with rats and mice.

Edith Frank stops eating, saving every morsel of food for her daughters and passing her rations to them through a hole she made at the bottom of the infirmary wall.

The Frank women are slated to join a transport to the Liebau labor camp in Upper Silesia. Bloeme Evers-Emden is slated to be on this transport.

But Anne is prohibited from going because she has developed scabies, and her mother and sister opt to stay with her. Bloeme goes on without them.

October 30 The last selection takes place at Auschwitz. Edith is selected for the gas chamber while Anne and Margot are selected for deportation to BergenBelsen concentration camp in Germany.

Edith escapes with a friend to another section of the camp, where she remains through the winter.

Fritz Pfeffer is deported to Neuengamme concentration camp in Germany. November 26 Mrs. December 20 Fritz Pfeffer dies in Neuengamme.

Evacuation of Auschwitz begins. Those too weak or sick to walk are left behind. These remaining 7, are ordered for execution by the SS, but in the chaos of the Nazi retreat the order was never carried out.

Otto refuses, not knowing that this resignation to die actually ends up saving his life. Peter joins the death march out of Auschwitz.

January 25 Peter is registered at Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria. Anne and Margot arrive on a transport from Auschwitz that left in late October, Anne is briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar and Nanette Blitz, who were confined in another section of the camp.

Goslar and Blitz both survive the war and later discuss the brief conversations they conducted with Anne through a fence.

Blitz describes her as bald, emaciated, and shivering. Neither of them sees Margot, as she was too weak to leave her bunk. Anne tells both Blitz and Goslar she believes her parents are dead, and for that reason she does not wish to live any longer.

Goslar later estimates their meetings took place in late January or early February January 27 Auschwitz is liberated by Soviet troops.

Otto is still in the sick barracks. He is taken first to Odessa and then to France before he is allowed to make his way back to Amsterdam. January 29 Peter is placed in an outdoor labor group.

February 4 Mrs.

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